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A Talmid of the Chasam Sofer, told his Rebbe, that the Shlah Hakadosh brings, the Tefillah of Rav Tavyumi (Amorai). In it it says:
.עם יושר עיקרם שלש עשרה
We see from here, that the 13 Ikrim goes back, way before the Rambam.
Even so, the Chasam Sofer still refused to accept the concept of 13 Ikrim.
(Shu”t Y.D. 356)
Ten years later in E.H. 2 : Teshuva #148 the Chasam Sofer. writes ,on the Tefillas R.Tavyumi :
“ The 13 Ikrim is not referring on the Rambam’s 13 Ikrim. It is referring to the 13 Tikunim of the beard (י"ג תיקוני דיקנא ) A Kabbalistic concept, associated with the שלש עשרה מדות.”
The Chasam Sofer insists that it was never heard of before the Rambam.