BAVA BASRA 115b
King ארדשיר (r. 224–242) was the founder of the Sasanian
dynasty (Persian) He had a son שבור מלכא who succeeded him.
Sh'vor Malka's mother was איפרא הורמז (mentioned numerous
times in Shas)
ארדשיר together with his son שבור מלכא conquered Bavel
from the Romans. There is a town in Bavel named
ארדשיר (Gittin 6a)
Until שבור מלכא became king the Yidden suffered terribly
under the Persians.
They were big רשעים. Rav said "rather under a Nochri
(Romans) than under a Chabor. (Shabbos 11a).
Their priests are known in Chazal as the חברים
(The correct pronunciation is Chaborim - (Chabor)
with a Bais and not with a Vais [see איוב מ: ל])
They worshiped fire and wouldn't allow the lighting of
Chanukah candles. (Shabbos 45a)
שבור מלכא ruled in the year 240-271. He was very
friendly to the Yidden. There was even peace and
tolerance between the Chaborim & Yidden.
שבור מלכא was very interested in the Mitzvohs and
Minhagim of the Yidden. He even followed some
of their Minhagim.
He was a very close friend with שמואל the אמורא.
Shmuel was also his advisor.
שבור מלכא never killed any Yidden
except for once when he killed 12,000 Yidden. The
Gemoro (Moed Katan 26a) says it was their own fault
because they rebelled against him.
Shmuel himself was referred by רבא as שבור מלכא
(Bava Basra 115b- Pesachim 54a) Rashi explains because the Halacha
is like Shmuel the same as the laws of שבור מלכא.
The Rashbam(Bava Basra) explains
same on both רבה &שמואל why they were called שבור מלכא because
the Halacha is like them.
The סדר הדורות writes the reason שמואל was called
שבור מלכא because he was very close to שבור מלכא.
the1st שבור מלכא*